Nephrology is a medical science that deals with the diagnosis of kidney diseases and their treatment (medication, dialysis, transplantation), as well as monitoring patients with a transplanted kidney.

Main diseases in nephrology:

  • Hydronephrosis is a progressive, persistent enlargement of the renal pelvis and calyces, leading to impaired renal function. The disease is associated with a violation of the output of urine and, as a result, its accumulation. Subsequently, the disease can lead to the death of the organ.


  • Glomerulonephritis is an immunoinflammatory disease of the kidneys, in which the renal glomeruli are affected with the involvement of the tubules and interstitial tissue. It can occur in an acute, chronic or rapidly progressive form.


  • Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory disease of the kidneys caused by various microorganisms. Most often, inflammation is provoked by several bacteria, less often by one type of microbe.


  • Urinary incontinence in women is a condition that has an extremely negative impact on the quality of life of patients, causing severe physical and mental suffering.


  • Renal failure is a condition of the body in which the kidneys partially or completely lose their ability to perform their basic functions.


Main symptoms of kidney diseases:

Reasons to visit a nephrologist are usually:

  • Swelling;
  • Redness or darkening of urine;
  • Pain in the lumbar region;
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) that is difficult to treat;
  • Abnormalities in a biochemical blood test (increased creatinine or urea) or in a urinalysis (any changes – protein in the urine, erythrocytes or leukocytes in the urine, as well as casts, bacteria, crystals or acetone in the urine);
  • Anemia (decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells) of unknown origin;
  • A sharp increase or decrease in the amount of urine per day.